17. Due to Mars having 38% les
17. Due to Mars having 38% less gravity than Earth, muscle massand bone densityA. would increase in Martian humansB. decrease in Martian humansC. remain the same in Martian humans18. During aging, the reduction of HCL by the stomachA. causes constipationB. increases appetiteC. reduces the adsorption of vitamin B12D. increases the size of stomach
27. Lack of microbes on the sterile Martian surface mayA. weaken our immune systemB. amplify our immune systemC. have no effect on our immune system
31.Warming Mars could be accomplished byA. using PFCsB. positioning mirrors to reflect sunlight onto the planetC. transferring nitrogen from Venus or TitanD. all of the above
40. The nervous system is affected by aging due toA. loss of white matterB. increase lag time of firing neuronsC. increased susceptibility to illness
42. Changes in heart muscle mass in Martian humans will increasethe likelihood ofA. hypertensionB. heart failureC. diabetesD. renal failure43. Getting to Mars could be accomplished using this method, inwhich one small vehicle would be utilized to descend to the surfaceof Mars and return up to Mars’ orbit, where it will rendezvous withanother spacecraftA. Mars Orbit RendezvousB. Earth-Mars RendezvousC. Space X47. Since the thymus gland atrophies as aging occurs,A. immunity increasesB. immunity decreasesC. there is no change to immunity
17) Decrease in Martian humans
Bone loss occurs in the weightless environment of space becausebones no longer have to support the body against gravity.
18) Increases the size of stomach
The mucus membrane of the stomach thins with age resulting inlower level of mucus, hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes. Thisreduces the digestion of proteins and lead to chronic atrophicgastritis.
27) Weaken our immune system
Imbalances in the gut microbiota may disregulate immuneresponses and lead to the development of chronic inflammatory andautoimmune dysfunctions
31) positioning mirrors to reflect sunlight onto the planet.
This could be done by spreading dark dust from Mars moons,phobos and Deimos, which are among the blackest bodies in the solarsystem or by introducing dark extremophile microbial life form suchas lichens, algae and bacteria. The ground would then absorb moresunlosun, warming the atmosphere.
40) Increased susceptibility to illness
The brain and nervous system go through natural changes. Brainand spinal cord lose nerve cell and weight (atrophy).
42) Heart failure
Microgravity affects the hearts ability to pump blood andprovide oxygen to cells throughout the body, which can have serioushealth consequences, especially upon landing on a planet.
43) Mars orbit rendezvous
MOR is a space travel concept where two space craft meet up and/or dock in Mars orbit.
47) Immunity decreases
Thymic involution or thymic menopause is thought to be the causeof aging of the immune system where there is diminution of thethymic epithelium, decrease of T cell output and impaired cellmediated immunity.