Compare and contrast activatio

Compare and contrast activation of a cell by peptide versussteroid hormones. Include at least one similarity and onedifference in your answer. Remember that all answers must bespecific, complete, and in full sentences to count for fullcredit

Answer:

Steroid hormones are fat soluble so they pass through the plasmamembrane and enter the nucleus. There they bind to DNA and startthe synthesis of the hormone. The synthesis of steroid hormonesoccurs in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum when needed. Sincesteroid hormones are small hydrophobic molecules, they can freelydiffuse through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane. They bindto a specific receptor inside the cytoplasm, and thisreceptor-bound steroid hormone complex is transported into thenucleus. This receptor-bound steroid hormone complex then binds tospecific regions on chromatin. This binding either activates orreleases the associated proteins of chromatin to modify thetranscription. In the end, the steroid hormone determines theamount of a particular protein in the cell. Thereby, thereceptor-bound steroid hormone complex acts as a transcriptionregulator.

Peptide hormones refer to any hormone derived from amino acids.They can be either small or large hydrophilic molecules synthesizedin the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Peptide hormones are stored invesicles until the signals are received for the secretion. Sincethey are hydrophilic molecules, peptide hormones are unable tofreely diffuse through the lipid bilayer. Therefore, the receptorsfor the peptide hormones are located on the surface of the targetcell. These receptors are made up of a single polypeptide chain,which comprises domains on either side of the plasma membrane.These intracellular and extracellular domains are connected by amembrane-spanning domain.

Some of the receptors are composed of multiple polypeptides. Thepeptide hormones are the first messengers of the signaling pathway.The binding of the peptide hormone to the receptor activates theG-protein, which is located in the membrane. The activatedG-protein stimulates enzymes such as adenyl cyclase andphospholipase C in the plasma membrane, producing second messengerssuch as cyclic AMP (cAMP). Those second messengers bind to theprotein kinase A. The activated protein kinase A phosphorylatesother proteins, initiating a signal cascade to modify variousfunctions of the cell.

Similarities Between Steroid and Peptide Hormones

They both require a receptor or a protein to bind. Steroidhormone requires a receptor outside the cell where a peptidehormone requires a receptor inside the cell.

•            Both steroid and peptide hormones are signaling molecules thatregulate the physiology and the behavior of organs.

•            Both steroid and peptide hormones are produced in the endocrineglands and released into the bloodstream in order to be transportedto the target organ.

•            Typically, both steroid and peptide hormones exert a prolongedaction.


 
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