Discuss in detail the modern a
Discuss in detail the modern atomic theory, on how it evolved,and laws that led to its development in the present day form.Explain the structure of atom with respect to its components
Modern atomic theory:
the modern atomic theory was developed by a famous theoreticalphysicist Neils Bohr in the year 1913. this theory suggested thatatom has a nucleus and which contains some particles and thatelectrons are found around this nucleus in concentric circlesorbital arrangement. this model was initially taken from thearrangements of planets in our solar system and therefore it isalso called planetary model.
there were 4 main principles which Bohr summarized his model in,and these are
1. Each electron has its certain path of motion around thenucleus and these are called orbitals and they are stationary orstable in nature.
2. There is a fixed energy which is associated with theseorbitals and named them as E1 for the energy orbital near tonucleus and E2, next orbital and so on.
3. When an electron absorbs some energy in form of quanta ofenergy (photons) then it jumps from lower to higher orbits andElectron emits energy when an electron comes back to a lowerorbital from a previous higher orbital.
4. The energy difference between any two orbitals can be used tocalculate the frequency of light which was absorbed or emitted byan electron in its jumping motion.
Further, in 1932, neutrons (neutral in charge, thus the name)were discovered residing in the nucleus along with positivelycharged protons by physicist James Chadwick. and also according tomodern atomic theory, the likelihood of an electron to be presentin certain position was given by mathematical equations derived byErwin Schrodinger in 1926.
Structure of atom is Protons and Neutrons are present togetherin the nucleus, where the proton is positively charged particle andneutron have no charge, thus giving the nucleus an overall positivecharge. As described above. Electron orbits around this nucleus incertainly fixed orbitals depending on the particular energy of anelectron. and change in electron can move it up or down indifferent orbitals.
Hope this clears your doubts about modern atomic theory.