For the element Na, what is th

For the element Na, what is thegreatest energy level and howmany electrons are in this energy level?

Is it more beneficial to gain or lose electrons toobtain noble gas configuration?

What would be the charge on theion?

Answer:

The electronic configuration of Na is 1s22s2 2p6 3s1. This gives theorbital with the greatest energy as the 3s orbital. This orbital inNa possesses only one electron. The nearest noble gas’configuration is that of neon which is 1s22s2 2p6 and the other noble gas argon has aconfiguration of 1s2 2s2 2p63s2 3p6. So it can be seen that Na has ahalf-filled s-orbital. To attain a noble gas configuration, theeasiest way for Na is to lose one electron and become amonopositive cation Na+. Otherwise, it should gain 7electrons and be Na7-. Being a metal and having a loweffective nuclear charge, this combined with the highly positiveelectron-gain enthalpy of Na prevents such an anion from forming asthat many electrons can never be held together within the atomstructure by Na’s nucleus. So, it can be concluded that Na willattain the noble gas configuration of Ne by losing one electron andbe Na+ with a charge of +1.


 
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