What does increasing sympathet

What does increasing sympathetic tone do to the respiratorysystem?

B. It increase pulmonary perfusion by increasing cardiacoutput.

A. It increases blood pressure by contracting arterial smoothmuscles, thus increasing pulmonary blood flow.

C. It decreases pulmonary ventilation bybronchoconstriction.

D. It increases pulmonary ventilation by bronchodilation.


The sympathetic tone controls thephysiological systems of our body by neurotransmitters likeadrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine. The actions of theseneurotransmitters are mediated through adrenergic receptors likeAlpha and Beta-adrenergic receptors.

In the respiratory system, thebronchial smooth muscles possess Beta2 receptors upon sympatheticstimulation receptors to cause bronchodilation and inhibition ofrelease of allergic mediators from mast cells present in the lungs.The blood vessels of the mucus membrane and upper respiratory tractpossess Alpha1 receptors they cause vasoconstriction uponsympathetic stimulation.

These effects of Beta2 and Alpha1receptors lead to a reduction in bronchial resistance andconnection. Both of these effects help to increase pulmonaryventilation.

Hence, the correct answer isD. It increases pulmonary ventilation bybronchodilation.

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